Electronic Proceedings of the Seventh Annual International Conference on Technology in Collegiate MathematicsOrlando, Florida, November 1720, 1994Paper P015
Calculus, Concepts, Computers and Cooperative Learning (The Purdue Calculus Reform Project) 
David Mathews
Longwood College
Farmville, VA 23909
USA
 Ed Dubinsky
Purdue University
West Lafayette, IN
USA
 Keith Schwingendorf
Purdue University
West Lafayette, IN
USA

The Calculus, Concepts, Computers and Cooperative Learning
(C4L) program is the result of a National Science Foundation
funded research and development project begun at Purdue
University under the direction of Ed Dubinsky and Keith
Schwingendorf. The emphasis of the C4L program is a pedagogical
approach based on a constructivist theoretical perspective of
how mathematics is learned. The C4L pedagogical approach is
embodied in what is termed the ActivityClassExercise, or ACE
cycle. Each unit, which generally lasts for a week, begins with
students performing computer activities in a laboratory.
Laboratory periods are followed by class meetings in which a
modified Socratic approach is used in conjunction with
cooperative problem solving in small groups to help the students
to build upon their mathematical experiences from the computer
laboratory. Finally, relatively traditional exercises are
assigned to reinforce the knowledge students are expected to
have constructed during the first two steps of the cycle. We
believe that our approach makes it possible for students to
attain a deeper understanding of more sophisticated mathematical
concepts than is possible in the traditional lecturelisten
format.
Keyword(s): calculus, pedagogy, cooperative learning